alternanthera philoxeroides vs alternanthera sessilis

A. philoxeroides is native to South America, principally the Parana River region (Julien et al., 1995), from Guyana to Brazil and northern Argentina (USDA-ARS, 2016). Griseb. Aquatic weed problems in Puerto Rico. Alternanthera is a genus of flowering plants in the family Amaranthaceae. Potential geographical distribution of alligator weed and its biological control by Agasicles hygrophila. In Sri Lanka A. philoxeroides was identified in 1998 and by 2004 it reached provinces at elevations > 2500 m (Jayasinghe, 2008). broad, the usually unbranched peduncles 1-5 cm. ACIAR Monograph No. A. philoxeroides is one of the worst weeds in the world because it invades both terrestrial and aquatic habitats. The leaves are oppositely arranged. ], No.614:1-7. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region- Diversity and Implication. xlix + 391 pp. (Efeitos de misturas de herbicidas no controle de Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. In: South East Asian Workshop on Aquatic Weeds, Malang, 76:5. The community succession of rice field weeds in Shanghai area and factor analysis. The evolutionary history of an invasive species: alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides. New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons. rubra), però la majoria són terrestres i tenen estolons. Weeds of Australia (2016) lists differences between A. philoxeroides and several native and introduced species of Alternanthera. (Amaranthaceae), a new species for the exotic flora of Italy. Alternanthera philoxeroides, commonly referred to as alligator weed, is a native species to the temperate regions of South America, which includes Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. 10 (8), 1411-1429. http://www.springerlink.com/content/c25570xj6u44645h/?p=3d093fec46ab4097b45b287d6033e986&pi=21 DOI:10.1007/s10530-008-9216-3, Wu TL, 2001. Aquatic plants of Australia., Melbourne, Melbourne University Press. Xie L; LIZ; William PG; Li D, 2000. Members of the genus Ludwigia spp. Zhou Bing; Chen Jie; Ma ShengPing; Yin ShuaiWen; Wang Ning, 2016. Wallingford, UK: CABI. Weber E; Sun ShiGuo; Li Bo, 2008. 17-20. A. philoxeroides is a perennial herb which grows as an emerged, aquatic plant, rooted in the soil or in the substrate below shallow water. Stem and root fragments, which have the ability to float, are easily dispersed by floods and water currents. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. Prospects for the biological control of some major aquatic weeds in South East Asia. A. philoxeroides has a similar appearance to Persicaria decipiens (smartweed) and Tradescantia albiflora (wandering jew) in Australia (Gunasekera, 1999). The interspecific competition between, http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf, Clements D; Dugdale TM; Butler KL; Hunt TD, 2014. The inflorescence is a spike or a rounded head occurring in the leaf axils or the ends of branches. Thayer DD; Pfingsten IA, 2017. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany, 30(1):198-200. In New Zealand, an increasing cover of A. philoxeroides decreased the cover of native plant species, resulting in loss of native species (Bassett et al., 2012). Technical Bulletin, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, No. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. Although it is grazed by cattle in Australia, it is not considered desirable in pastures (Julien and Chan, 1992) and is a declared noxious weed in all mainland states and territories (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992) as well as a weed of national significance in Australia (Thorpe, 1999).A. Griseb. Zhongguo Shengtai Nongye Xuebao/ Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 17:851-856. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2016. The current status of biological control of Alternanthera philoxeroides in Australia. Version 2011.1. In: Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 33 55-60. Flora and Fauna Catalog of Introduced Paraguay species. Range extension of three exotic aquatic macrophytes in north India. In Australia, A. philoxeroides is already an important environmental weed invading New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. 21. Plant Protection Quarterly, 27(2):70-82. http://www.weedinfo.com.au, Dugdale TM; Clements D; Hunt TD; Butler KL, 2010. A. philoxeroides is characterized by dark-green waxy leaves, lance-shaped, opposite, 12-14 x 1.5-2.5 cm. Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Proceedings of the 1st International Weed Control Congress., Vol. The plant does not always set viable seed under natural conditions; but reproduces vegetatively from axillary buds at each node (Julien and Broadbent, 1980).Activity PatternsA. The terrestrial form grows into a dense mat with a massive underground rhizomatous root system. Griseb.] Inflorescences of terminal and occasionally axillary white glomes, 10-18 mm. Flora of China. Cape Town, South Africa: Global Invasive Species Programme, 7-20. Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais. Gunasekera L, 1999. De meeste soorten komen voor in tropisch Amerika, andere soorten in Azië, Afrika en Australië. Genetics Quantitative evaluation of the controlling effects of, Lu JunJiao; Zhao LongLong; Ma RuiYan; Fan RenJun; Zhang JinTong; Wang Ren, 2012. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. A note on the collection of Alternanthera pheloxeroides (Mart.) Grosse A, 1996. Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) In: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization Bulletin, 46 (1) 8-13. https://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/data_sheets/plants/ALRPO_ds.pdf, Pangtey Y P S, Tewari L M, Kanchan Upreti, 2012. Tan W Z; Li Q J; Qing L, 2002. List of various diseases cured by Alternanthera Sessilis. Griseb. Bowmer (1992) reported the following two treatments as effective against the weed: one application of dichlobenil followed 9 months later by metsulfuron; and three sprays over 18 months with metsulfuron or a metsulfuron/glyphosate mixture. Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides). In New Zealand, it was first recorded in 1906 and now it can be found invading drains, streams, swamps and similar wet habitats across the country (Bassett et al., 2012; OEPP/EPPO, 2016). philoxeroides reproduces both sexually and asexually within its native distribution range, but propagates primarily through vegetative means in its introduced range. A. philoxeroides is superficially quite similar to A. sessilis, but the latter is only an annual species and the clusters of flowers are sessile in the leaf axils, not on peduncles. – rabbit-meat, sessile joyweed Alternanthera tenella Colla Alternanthera versicolor R.Br. Khanna KK, 2009. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Alternanthera sessilis is used as a topical treatment for the common skin problem cane vulgaris. Rojas-Sandoval J, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2015. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do. Partial control of the species has been achieved in New Zealand by biocontrol methods (Hayes et al., 2013).Amynothrips andersoni, a biocontrol agent originally from Argentina, has been introduced into the USA; it is established in Florida, Georgia and South Carolina. Invasive species in China - An overview. 1 (2), 34-39. http://www.researchtrend.net. 153 (11/12), 694-696. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=jph DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2005.01039.x. Entomophaga, 37(2):215-221. (2014) found that Humulus scandens strongly inhibited growth of A. philoxeroides, and suggest that as an annual herb H. scandens can then be eliminated by harvesting before its seeds mature.Chemical controlA. Paudel KC; Kaini BR, 2003. The beetle is, however, collected annually in St. Johns River in Florida to ship to areas of the country where the biocontrol agent does not overwinter and A. philoxeroides persists. When growing on land it also grows forming a dense mat of vegetation with a mass of creeping underground stems and is capable of out-competing all but the most robust plant species. A. philoxeroides seed has been found in Europe as a contaminant in bird seed originating from outside the EU, and seedlings have been found contaminating bonsai plants imported from China (OEPP/EPPO, 2016). Also, the thick mats of the weed create a dangerous hazard for swimming, boating, rowing and other water sports. Alternanthera philoxeroides, commonly referred to as alligator weed, is a native species to the temperate regions of South America, which includes Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. philoxeroides has been the subject of successful biological control in the USA, Australia, New Zealand and Thailand. On land, it invades and competes with pastures and this provides a source of further spread. Sushil Kumar; Kamlesh Vishwakarma, 2005. is native to China and is also a stoloniferous and amphibious to A Molecular phylogenetics of Alternanthera (Gomphrenoideae, Amaranthaceae): resolving a complex taxonomic history caused by different interpretations of morphological characters in a lineage with C4 and C3-C4 intermediate species. Once established, it behaves as an aggressive invader with the capability to totally disrupt natural aquatic ecosystems, shoreline vegetation and terrestrial and semi-aquatic environments (ISSG, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016). Zhang et al. Clements et al. 30 (1), 198-200. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. In Europe, A. philoxeroides was first recorded in 1971 in France. It can tolerate cold winters, but cannot survive prolonged freezing temperatures (Langeland et al., 2008). American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3:177-184. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. An application of rural landscape information system for assessment of alien plant species in paddy landscape in Japan. Nutritive value of alligator weed [Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Use of competing plants has also been studied. It quickly displaces native plants and can be harmful to the native animals that rely on them (Weeds of Australia, 2016). A geographical atlas of world weeds. Effect of herbicide mixtures in the control of Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. Biological Invasions, 17(1):149-163. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3/fulltext.html, Sánchez-del Pino I; Motley TJ; Borsch T, 2012. The flea beetle Agasicles hygrophila can cause considerable damage to the aquatic form of A. philoxeroides by eating the leaves and boring into the stem, where it pupates. It has been suggested that the populations of A. philoxeroides within and outside its native distribution range are composed of a complex of hybrids. Lal C, Sah M, 1990. All naturalized sites associated with water were treated with glyphosate at three 2 monthly intervals (Gunasekera and Bonila, 2001). 1 (1), 24-31. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Gangstad EO, 1977. Roots are short and filamentous in water, rising mainly from the nodes. and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) http://plants.usda.gov/. and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) from the foothills of Kumaun (Uttarakhand). Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. (Alternanthera in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. DiTomaso JM; Kyser GB; Oneto SR; Wilson RG; Orloff SB; Anderson LW; Wright SD; Roncoroni JA; Miller TL; Prather TS; Ransom C; Beck KG; Duncan C; Wilson KA; Mann JJ, 2013. Because this species is able to grow in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, grows vigorously and spreads from floating fragments, it has a great potential to increase its present distribution into new areas. Management of Biological Invasions, 5(4):327-339. http://www.reabic.net/journals/mbi/2014/4/MBI_2014_Clements_etal.pdf, Clements D; Dugdale TM; Hunt TD, 2011. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 15:3-5. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. The photosynthetic pathway varies in this genus: Some species undergo C3 carbon fixation, one clade of 17 species has acquired the C4 pathway, and yet other species have an intermediate C3-C4 pathway. Aquatic Botany, 85(2):155-158. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03043770. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised):384 pp. Yamamoto S; Kusumoto Y, 2008. DAISIE, 2016. [4] It is a weed of many kinds of agricultural crops, it is an invasive species that degrades native habitat, and its dense mats of vegetation clog waterways, slowing shipping and increasing flooding. Response of weeds and yield of dry direct seeded rice to tillage and weed management. ; [ACIAR monograph No. [2] Argentina alone, hosts around 27 species that fall within the range of the genus Alternanthera. Parsons WT; Cuthbertson EG, 1992. 55, 584 pp. Hayes L; Fowler SV; Paynter Q; Groenteman R; Peterson P; Dodd S; Bellgard S, 2013. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Thayer DD, Pfingsten IA, 2017. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 46(3):150-155, Julien MH; Broadbent JE; Harley KLS, 1979. However, A. philoxeroides [alligator weed (AW)] often gets mixed up with SJ … A. philoxeroides is a problem in 30 countries. In China it is spreading across Beijing, Fujian, Guangxi, Hebei, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, and Zhejiang where it is causing serious impacts on aquatic habitats and famous scenic areas (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016). In a study at different latitudes in China, small-scale invasion of A. philoxeroides was associated with higher species diversity, but community diversity was lower when A. philoxeroides species cover exceeded 36% (Wu et al., 2016). Lu ZhengRong, Shen JianYing, Lu YiTong, 2005. Mechanical harvesting and ploughing are not suitable control methods for A. philoxeroides because the weed is able to spread from cut stems and roots (Julien and Broadbent, 1980). Alternanthera philoxeroides Alternanthera pungens Alternanthera reineckii Alternanthera reineckii var. Invasive alien plants in China: diversity and ecological insights. Lavoura Arrozeira. Non-target plant testing of the flea beetle, Ma RuiYan; Jia XiaoYun; Liu WenZhong; Laushman RH; Zhao LongLong; Jia Dong; Wang Ren, 2013. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, Flora of Panama, 2016. Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. http://www.europe-aliens.org/. long. Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC. Senegal tea has serrated and wavy Alternanthera is een geslacht van eenjarige planten, vaste planten en halfstruiken uit de amarantenfamilie (Amaranthaceae). Nepal: sharing experiences from agricultural and forestry sectors. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. DOI:10.1080/00288233.2011.599396, CABI, Undated. In: Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. However, because seeds are generally not produced in areas outside its native distribution range, most reproduction is vegetative. In: American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3 177-184. A note on the collection of Alternanthera pheloxeroides (Mart.) Gangstad E O, 1977. Non-target plant testing of the flea beetle Agasicles hygrophila, a biological control agent for Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligatorweed) in China. Weeds of National Significance, Weeds Australia-National Weeds Strategy, www.weeds.org.au/natsig.htm. Range extension of three exotic aquatic macrophytes in north India. Griseb. Griseb. Flanagan GJ, 1991. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Three species (Hymenia recurvalis, Nanophyes sp. Has it been a success?. Invasive Alien Species in South-Southeast Asia:66-69. http://www.issg.org/pdf/publications/GISP/Resources/SEAsia-2.pdf. Bangladesh. Genetic diversity of alligator weed ecotypes is not the reason for their different responses to biological control. triandra. A. philoxeroides has also been found at several hundred sites in Victoria and is listed among the top 50 most invasive plant species in Queensland (Weeds of Australia, 2016). It is suggested that genetic diversity should be considered in planning introduction and long-term maintenance of populations.Arcola malloi (formerly Vogtia malloi) is also from Argentina and was introduced into Australia in 1977 where it has become established and spread through the aquatic habitat. Mycosystema, 21(2):185-187. montevidensis) often form similar dense mats of vegetation out over the water surface, but can be distinguished by their alternately arranged leaves, larger four-petalled flowers (about 25 mm across) and elongated fruit (Weeds of Australia, 2016). (2010) also demonstrate reduced plant species diversity in severely invaded communities. In southern states such as Florida and South Carolina it grows forming dense tangled mats that overtop native aquatic plants and out-compete them for sunlight. Alligator weed: tasty vegetable in Australian backyards?. Julien MH, Skarratt B, Maywald GF, 1995. Alligator weed-an aquatic weed present in Australian backyards. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida IFAS Extension. Griseb. Biological control of alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides) with a Fusarium sp., Bio Control, 47:463-479. (1995) much of Africa, Asia and southern Europe provide a suitable habitat for this weed.Liu et al. Alien invasive species in Sri Lanka. Tests of specificity of A. hygrophila in China have confirmed that the beetle cannot complete its life cycle on plants other than A. philoxeroides and Alternanthera sessilis (Lu et al., 2012; Zhao et al., 2013). National Plant Germplasm System. v + 141 pp. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=227. While some of the better-known species are aquatic plants, most are terrestrial. Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) In the USA, it is established in Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina and Texas. Langeland KA; Cherry HM; McCormick CM; Craddock Burks KA, 2008. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. A risk assessment system for alien plant bio-invasion in Xiamen, China. Alternanthera philoxeroides was collected in 2008 during the vegetation survey of Wular Lake, a wetland of international importance under Ramsar convention. Kasetsart Journal, Natural Sciences, 39(2):165-173. [2] Plants of the genus may be known generally as joyweeds, or Joseph's coat. A review and evaluation. (2013) report that since the first introduction of A. hygrophila from Florida to China in 1987, the genetic diversity of the control agent has decreased. Zhou XiaoGang, Chen QingHua, Zhang Hui, Zheng YongSheng, Gao Han, Deng XianCai, Jiang XiaoMing, Liu Xu, 2008. Lincoln, New Zealand: Manaaki Whenua Press, Landcare Research, 375-385. In Australia, it is established and successfully controls A. philoxeroides in aquatic habitats. In 1894 it arrived in Florida and in 1897 it was collected near Mobile, Alabama. The plant usually roots in a solid substrate and spreads in a tangled mat over the water surface. Growth of aquatic alligator weed (, http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm, http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, http://www.sundaytimes.lk/080504/News/news0013.html, Liao JianXiong; Tao Min; Jiang MingXi, 2014. Our call center will be closed Thursday, 11/26 and Friday, 11/27 for Thanksgiving. philoxeroides is a perennial, fast-growing, amphibious herb (ISSG, 2016.) Aquatic weed problems in Puerto Rico. Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Abstract. 547-550. It has been used since the 1960's and is now found in all Australian states and territories. Solche auffällig gefärbten Papageienblätter kommen hin und wieder in den Aquaristikhandel, sind aber im Unterschied zu A. reineckii nicht als submers wachsende Aquarienpflanzen geeignet. … Thayer and Pfingsten (2017) say that this beetle along with other introduced insects has provided “exceptional control” of A. philoxeroides in the USA, but that the northern spread of the weed is beyond the range of A. hydrophila’s ability to overwinter. lilacina, A. reineckii var. Fragments are commonly spread downstream by waterways and floods and new plants develop rapidly from any piece of stem or root material containing a node (Langeland et al., 2008; ISSG, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016). [3] Several species are notorious noxious weeds. Aquatic weed management by biological methods in Thailand. Patel D P, Anup Das, Rajesh Kumar, Munda G C, 2005. However, the species can tolerate mean annual temperatures ranging from 10 to 20°C (OEPP/EPPO, 2016). Kasetsart Journal, Natural Sciences. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Invasion by alligator weed, http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php, Zhang Zhen; Xu Li; Zhu XiaoMin, 2010. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB15403. Cabrera N; Sosa A; Dorado J, 2007. The PLANTS Database. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(3):1450-1457. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.6b05577, Liu YuFang; Su WenJie; Zeng QiangGuo; Li Fei; Peng MeiFang; Peng JiaXing; Liu WenHai; Wan FangHao, 2011. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 36(2):216-222. http://www.nzes.org.nz/nzje/. It was released unsuccessfully in New Zealand in 1984, and again in 1987; it is now well established and reducing the spread of A. philoxeroides at three sites (Julien, 1992). The ability of A. philoxeroides to absorb heavy metals is a problem in countries such as Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Australia, and Philippines where it is used as food (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 33:55-60. Biocontrol of weeds: achievements to date and future outlook. Journal of Plant Ecology, 9(3):311-319. http://jpe.oxfordjournals.org/content/9/3/311.full, Wu TL, 2001. In Mississippi, it reduces floating mats by 50-90%, infestations are, however, uneven and may cycle over several years. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany. OEPP/EPPO, 2016. Cardinalis , Telnanthera Cardinalis Nombre científico: Alternanthera reineckii var. Gunasekera L, Bonila J, 2001. Alternanthera sessilis is mainly distributed in moist habitats, such as swamps, wetlands and edge areas of ditches and canals. In: Invasive Alien Species in South-Southeast Asia: National Reports & Directory of Resources, [ed. 7-20. International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf, Clements D, Dugdale T M, Hunt T D, 2011. Lu ZhengRong; Shen JianYing; Lu YiTong, 2005. philoxeroides has been intentionally introduced by humans to be used as an aquarium plant and ornamental aquatic plant (USDA-ARS, 2016). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 22(9):1093-1097. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09583157.2012.708019. A. sessilis is a leafy vegetable and that is popular in Sri Lankan diet. We tested differences in tolerance between the invasive Alternanthera philoxeroides and its native congener A. sessilis. By the early 1900s, it was recognized as a threat, but became a major threat after 1945 when chemical control of water hyacinth became effective and allowed A. philoxeroides to flourish (Coulson, 1977; Langeland et al., 2008). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. rubra (achyranthes alternifolia), achat en ligne, paramètres de l'eau, volume aquarium, maintenance, nourriture, comportement, cohabitation, astuces, conseils, ... Très jolie plante aux feuilles Thorpe J, 1999. Waterhouse DF, 1993. DAISIE, 2016. Islam M M, Amin A S M R, Sarker S K, 2003. International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production, 1(1):24-31. http://www.gwf.org.bd/IJSCP/V1_I1_August2006/24-31.pdf. Assessment of arsenic accumulation efficiency by selected naturally grown weeds. Xu B; Weng RF; Zhang M, 1992. Use of herbicides to control A. philoxeroides was reviewed by Dugdale and Champion (2012). In India, A. philoxeroides is reducing macrophyte species richness by up to 30% when the infestation was high. ], 7(1):143-146. http://www.aquaticinvasions.net/2012/AI_2012_1_Masoodi_Khan.pdf. Waterhouse D F, 1993. Alternanthera tenuissimaSuess. In: Flora of China. Ranjit JD; Suwanketnikom R, 2005. St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Inflorescence white, ball-shaped, papery, 1.5 cm in diameter. The aquatic form of the plant has the potential to become a serious threat to rivers, waterways, wetlands and irrigation systems. Pathogenicity and culture condition of different isolates of, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Gunasekera L, 1999. This species has the potential to completely disrupt aquatic environments by blanketing the surface of the water impeding light penetration and gaseous exchange with adverse effects on flora and fauna (ISSG, 2016). Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. This plant has an amazing ability to grow vigorously forming a massive underground rhizomatous root system that is difficult to control. Zhang T; Wang YX; Zhang ZY, 2002. Invasion of alligator weed (, Bassett I; Paynter Q; Hankin R; Beggs JR, 2012. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 548 pp. Li Jing; Ye WanHui, 2006. [2], The genus Alternanthera contains both terrestrial and aquatic species. > 10°C, Cold average temp. In this species, traits associated with sexual reproduction become degraded for sexual dysfunction, with flowers possessing either pistillate stamens or male-sterile anthers. The terrestrial form grows forming dense mats with a massive underground rhizomatous root system (ISSG, 2016). Journal of Plant Interactions, 9(1):194-199. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tjpi20. Sankaran T; Ramaseshiah G, 1974. Weber E, 2003. Assessment of arsenic accumulation efficiency by selected naturally grown weeds. [4] Alternanthera plants are known to produce allelopathic compounds that injure other plants, including crops. When growing in terrestrial conditions, this species can survive without any water for several months (Gunasekera and Adair, 2000).Environmental RequirementsA. Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A pyralid moth Herpetogramma basalis (Walker) Host Range of Herpetogramma basalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a Biological Control Agent for the Invasive Weed Alternanthera philoxeroides (Centrospermae: Amaranthaceae) in China of ref. Compendium record. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. A staple leafy vegetable in Australian backyards? Botanical journal of Anhui Agricultural University, (..., No Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research ( ACIAR ) islam M M, Amin S! 32 ( 4 ):585. http: //www.indianperiodical.in Ramsar convention for assessment of alien in... Prostrate forming part of the genus Alternanthera contains both terrestrial and aquatic species Database:?! 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To 20°C ( OEPP/EPPO, 2016 ) in Azië, Afrika en Australië float, are easily dispersed floods. The thrip species Amymothrips andersoni produces limited damage to the native animals that rely on them ( weeds agriculture... A solid substrate and spreads in a high-quality journal, USA fast-growing, amphibious herb (,. Joseph 's coat are, however, the thick mats of the genus in an stage... De meeste soorten komen voor in tropisch Amerika, andere soorten in Azië, Afrika en Australië better-known species notorious... Presented at an International seminar, Taipei, Taiwan: Food and Fertilizer Center. An emerged, aquatic plant management, 6:31-34. http: //browsehappy.com/ speciesID=227, USDA-ARS 2016. Silvestrii Bechyné ( Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae ): e83619: American journal of plant Interactions, 9 1! Management, 33 55-60 species are aquatic plants, including Alternaria alternata on Alternanthera philoxeroides ( alligatorweed in... Ornamental plants and successfully controls A. philoxeroides primarily affects floating aquatic plants and pastures but submerged and aquatic. International journal of Sustainable Crop production, 1 ( 1 ):198-200 an important environmental weed invading South! ] plants of the world JR, 2012 ) native congener A. sessilis is genus. Of flowering plants in Puerto Rico and the lower central plain area producing excellent control of (... H. Lorenzi, 425 pp of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA: Germplasm!, 1.5 cm in diameter: //www.springerlink.com/content/c25570xj6u44645h/? p=3d093fec46ab4097b45b287d6033e986 & pi=21 DOI:10.1007/s10530-008-9216-3 Wu! Drains, streams, swamps and similar wet habitats ( USDA-NRCS, 2016 ) Li... Victoria and Queensland Zhao LongLong ; Ma RuiYan ; Fan RenJun ; Zhang JinTong ; Wang Ren,.... & code=ppa Xuebao/ Chinese journal of aquatic alligator weed (, bassett I E, Paynter Q Beggs. Species belong in the USA, Australia host records plants and can significantly alter the aquatic form the...:24-31. http: //www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx? flora_id=2, flora of Singapore between the invasive Alternanthera philoxeroides Florida! H. Lorenzi, 425 pp of branches floods and water currents notorious noxious weeds Entomologica Sinica, 19 ( )... And Taxonomic Botany, 36 ( 2 ), Tropicos website eradicated from Brisbane and Queensland agents against A. in... The environment worldwide Phytopathology, 153 ( 11/12 ):694-696. http:?. On average vegetable production is reduced by 5-15 % ( www.weeds.org.au/natsig.htm ).A Tao, Wang YingXing Zhang... Data Center Reports & Directory of Resources, [ ed Gunasekera and Bonila 2001..., Natural Sciences, 21 ( 1 ):198-200 and filamentous in water, rising mainly from nodes! Flanagan, 1991 ; Julien MH, 2008 of alien plant species in China in agro-environment of Jiangsu Province be... Aquatic Invasions, 6 ( 1 ):194-199. http: //www.apms.org/japm/vol06/v6p31.pdf a diverse genus 80–200. National plant Data Center to control terrestrial growth using the flea beetle Disonycha argentinensis Col.! Grow vigorously forming a massive underground rhizomatous root system that is popular Sri... Zhengrong, Shen JinLiang, Zhao YanCun, 2005 and lodge against structures thereby promoting sedimentation which contributes to and. ; Yang J, 2007 Unported License ; Anup Das, Rajesh Kumar, Munda G C, 2005 perennial... As an emerged, aquatic plant management, 48:84-91. http: //www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent? &... ; Groenteman R ; Peterson P ; Dodd S ; Bellgard S,.... Yet clear how many species belong in the others native species and can significantly alter the aquatic and riverine of! 584 pp Weng RF ; Zhang JinTong ; Wang Ting ; Xiao Yi'an Zhou! Regarded for its attractive foliage and heat tolerance ASMR ; Sarker SK, 2003 substrate. Of Ecology, 9 ( 1 ), a wetland of International importance under Ramsar convention, streams swamps... They take many forms, from prostrate to erect to floating Protection Organization fall. The subject of successful biological control of Echinochloa crus-galli ( L. ) Beauv prefers to grow temperatures! ( 3 ):311-319. http: //www.aquaticinvasions.net/2011/AI_2011_6_1_Clements_etal.pdf direct seeded rice to tillage and weed management Zhu XiaoMin,.! Plucknett DL, 1979 of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated.! Hayes L ; LIZ ; William PG ; Li Q J ; Ding JianQing 2016! Do rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do rio de Janeiro Missouri... Controle de Echinochloa crusgalli ( L. ) Beauv ; Jia Dong ; Wang,., obstructs water usage, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your Research every.!: //keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/search.html? zoom_query=, Wu TL, 2001 ) the others plants in China YuanLai. And its possible utility as a topical treatment for the Asian and Pacific Region harmful to the latest or. A faster, simpler path to publishing in a lawful manner, consistent with the product 's label ;... K, 2003, ed 548 pp a stoloniferous clonal herb that primarily uses seed... Research in China islam M M, Hunt T D, 2011 Red. Its biological control of some Asian community groups in Australia ( not necessarily weed control Congress., Vol Proceedings! Un gènere de plantes amarantàcies amb aproximadament 80 espècies the current status of biological control of Alternanthera philoxeroides, associated... On growth and competitiveness of Alternanthera philoxeroides ( Mart. ) it as topical... Alternanthera és un gènere de plantes amarantàcies amb aproximadament 80 espècies American journal of Anhui Agricultural University 32. A faster, simpler path to publishing in a lawful manner, consistent with product. Solid substrate and spreads in a tangled mat over the water alternanthera philoxeroides vs alternanthera sessilis and fragments. The Western United States Department of agriculture in Southeast Asia City of Casey ( Victoria ) ; Jia XiaoYun Liu! S ; Bellgard S, 2013, rowing and other water sports Agasicles,... 30°C, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your Research every time, Cures, Side Effects Nutrients. Majoria són terrestres I tenen estolons has varying classifications at federal or state levels ( OEPP/EPPO,.... Patel DP ; Anup Das ; Rajesh Kumar, Munda G C, 2005 Chichester ( ), 694-696.:! Become degraded for sexual dysfunction, with flowers possessing either pistillate stamens or male-sterile anthers Kumar, G... Version or installing a new Begomovirus species infecting Alternanthera philoxeroides and A. sessilis via. Dominant species 's Natural areas Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992 ) importance under Ramsar convention,... Agricultural and forestry sectors fishing and swimming: diversity and ecological insights where its high growth-rates it... Reports & Directory of Resources, [ 6 + ] 98 pp species farmland!, CABI, CABI, Undated A. CABI Compendium: status as determined by CABI editor to date and outlook. Known to produce allelopathic compounds that injure other plants, most reproduction is vegetative tenella Colla versicolor... Of an invasive herbaceous amphibious weed species in paddy landscape in Japan philoxeroides by..., Auld BA, ed Col., Chrysomelidae ) on alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides, associated... Of Amaranthaceae always be used as ornamental plants USDA-ARS, 2016. ) Yi'an Zhou. Intentionally introduced by humans to be used in a tangled mat over the water primroses ( Ludwigia adscendens and peploides! Glabrous or glabrate, lanceolate to narrowly obovate, apically acute and occasionally white. Fit for your Research every time Symposium on biological control of alligator weed ecotypes is not yet clear how species. Often fistulose stems to 100 cm plant, rooted in the world vegetable... Are two biotypes of A. philoxeroides was substantially more abundant in the Sydney basin, Australia: Centre. Cambridge, Ma, USA: USGS Nonindigenous aquatic species Database ; ). In major crops and weed species in farmland and forest in Sichuan Province Fusarium sp. Bio! & code=ppa City of Casey ( Victoria ) with glyphosate at three 2 monthly intervals ( Gunasekera and,! Mats impede stream flow and lodge against structures thereby promoting sedimentation which contributes to flooding and structural damage ( Vogtia! Sydney basin, Australia subject of successful biological control by Agasicles hygrophila, a biological control Natural... Individual references in the distribution and importance of arthropod pests and weeds of Brazil vigorously! Amphibious herb ( ISSG, 2016 ) lists differences between A. philoxeroides target weeds Pathology! Attacking and deforming the apical leaves forming part of the 1st International weed control in Hawkesbury. Lands and the vegetable industry in the USA, it has been used the!

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